ACACB - Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 - human protein (Function)
 
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Protein
Gene
References

 
ACACB »  Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2   [ EC 6.4.1.2 ]
 
Protein also known as:  ACC-beta.
Gene name:  ACACB
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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1 80 3
GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase. Involved in inhibition of fatty acid and glucose oxidation and enhancement of fat storage (By similarity). May play a role in regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation through malonyl-CoA-dependent inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (By similarity).  
3
  • UniProtKB
GO molecular function 
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase activitydefinition[GO:0003989]  
1
  • UniProtKB
ATP bindingdefinition[GO:0005524]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Biotin bindingdefinition[GO:0009374] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Biotin carboxylase activitydefinition[GO:0004075]  
1
  • EC 2 GO
Metal ion bindingdefinition[GO:0046872]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Protein bindingdefinition[GO:0005515]  
3
  • UniProtKB
  • IntAct
  • BHF-UCL
GO biological process 
Acetyl-CoA metabolic processdefinition[GO:0006084]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Fatty acid biosynthetic processdefinition[GO:0006633] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Malonyl-CoA biosynthetic processdefinition[GO:2001295]  
1
  • UniPathway
Negative regulation of fatty acid oxidationdefinition[GO:0046322] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of heart growthdefinition[GO:0060421] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of lipid storagedefinition[GO:0010884] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Protein homotetramerizationdefinition[GO:0051289]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to drugdefinition[GO:0042493] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Response to organic cyclic compounddefinition[GO:0014070] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Enzymatic activity 
This protein acts as an enzyme. It is known to catalyze the following reactions
EC 6.4.1.2: ATP + acetyl-CoA + HCO(3)(-) ADP + phosphate + malonyl-CoA.  
3
  • UniProtKB
EC 6.3.4.14: ATP + biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein] + HCO(3)(-) ADP + phosphate + carboxy-biotin-[carboxyl-carrier-protein].  
2
  • UniProtKB
It requires the following cofactors
 biotin  
2
  • UniProtKB
 Mn(2+) : Binds 2 manganese ions per subunit.  
1
  • UniProtKB
It is regulated in the following manner
Activity is increased by oligomerization. Activated by citrate. Citrate and MID1IP1 promote oligomerization. Inhibited by malonyl-CoA.  
3
  • UniProtKB
 
More information is available from:
Pathways 
This protein is involved in the following pathway
Lipid metabolism; malonyl-CoA biosynthesis; malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA: step 1/1  
1
  • UniProtKB
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Adipocytokine signaling pathway  hsa04920+32  
Fatty acid biosynthesis  hsa00061+32  
Insulin signaling pathway  hsa04910+32  
Metabolic pathways  hsa01100+32  
Propanoate metabolism  hsa00640+32  
Pyruvate metabolism  hsa00620+32  
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Activation of gene expression by SREBF (SREBP)  REACT_147904  
Biotin transport and metabolism  REACT_11153  
ChREBP activates metabolic gene expression  REACT_2122  
Defective HLCS causes multiple carboxylase deficiency  REACT_169312  
Import of palmitoyl-CoA into the mitochondrial matrix  REACT_11082  
 
More information is available from:
 

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters
KM 6.5 mM for NaHCO3 (isoform 3)
KM 110 uM for ATP (isoform 2)
KM 120 uM for ATP
KM 94 uM for acetyl-CoA (isoform 3)
KM 3.0 mM for NaHCO(3)
KM 58 uM for acetyl-CoA

Keywords

Biological process 
Fatty acid biosynthesis  definition   [KW-0275]
Fatty acid metabolism  definition   [KW-0276]
Lipid biosynthesis  definition   [KW-0444]
Lipid metabolism  definition   [KW-0443]
Molecular function 
Ligase  definition   [KW-0436]
Technical term 
Allosteric enzyme  definition   [KW-0021]
Multifunctional enzyme  definition   [KW-0511]
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Enzyme and pathway databases
SABIO-RK: O00763
Other
GeneWiki: ACACB
GenomeRNAi: 32
PRO: PR:O00763
Chemistry
GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY: 1264