F2 - Prothrombin - human protein (Function)
 
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F2 »  Prothrombin   [ EC 3.4.21.5 ]
 
Protein also known as:  Coagulation factor II. Cleaved into:  Activation peptide fragment 1; Activation peptide fragment 2; Thrombin heavy chain; Thrombin light chain.
Gene name:  F2
Family name: Peptidase S1
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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1 631 1
GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
Thrombin, which cleaves bonds after Arg and Lys, converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII, and, in complex with thrombomodulin, protein C. Functions in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing.  
1
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
Calcium ion bindingdefinition[GO:0005509] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
Growth factor activitydefinition[GO:0008083]  
1
  • TASBHF-UCL
Protein bindingdefinition[GO:0005515]  
7
  • IPIIntAct
  • IPIBHF-UCL
  • IPIUniProtKB
Contributes to receptor bindingdefinition[GO:0005102]  
2
  • IPIUniProtKB
  • IPIBHF-UCL
Serine-type endopeptidase activitydefinition[GO:0004252]  
2
  • IDAUniProtKB
  • IDABHF-UCL
Thrombospondin receptor activitydefinition[GO:0070053]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
GO biological process 
Acute-phase responsedefinition[GO:0006953]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Cell surface receptor signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0007166]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Cytosolic calcium ion homeostasisdefinition[GO:0051480]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Fibrinolysisdefinition[GO:0042730]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Multicellular organismal developmentdefinition[GO:0007275]  
1
  • TASPINC
Negative regulation of astrocyte differentiationdefinition[GO:0048712]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Negative regulation of fibrinolysisdefinition[GO:0051918]  
1
  • TASBHF-UCL
Negative regulation of platelet activationdefinition[GO:0010544]  
1
  • TASBHF-UCL
Negative regulation of proteolysisdefinition[GO:0045861]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Platelet activationdefinition[GO:0030168]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Positive regulation of blood coagulationdefinition[GO:0030194]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Positive regulation of cell growthdefinition[GO:0030307] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of cell proliferationdefinition[GO:0008284] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic processdefinition[GO:0032967]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalingdefinition[GO:0014068] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:1900738]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Positive regulation of protein phosphorylationdefinition[GO:0001934]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic processdefinition[GO:2000379]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosoldefinition[GO:0051281]  
2
  • IDABHF-UCL
Regulation of blood coagulationdefinition[GO:0030193]  
1
  • TASUniProtKB
Regulation of cell shapedefinition[GO:0008360] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Regulation of gene expressiondefinition[GO:0010468] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to woundingdefinition[GO:0009611]  
1
  • IDABHF-UCL
Enzymatic activity 
This protein acts as an enzyme. It is known to catalyze the following reaction
EC 3.4.21.5: Selective cleavage of Arg-|-Gly bonds in fibrinogen to form fibrin and release fibrinopeptides A and B.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
It is regulated in the following manner
Inhibited by SERPINA5.  
1
  • CuratedUniProtKB
 
More information is available from:
Pathways 
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Complement and coagulation cascades  hsa04610+2147  
Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction  hsa04080+2147  
Regulation of actin cytoskeleton  hsa04810+2147  
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Hemostasis  REACT_604  
Metabolism of proteins  REACT_17015  
Signal Transduction  REACT_111102  
Note 
It is not known whether 1 or 2 smaller activation peptides, with additional cleavage after Arg-314, are released in natural blood clotting.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
Thrombin can itself cleave the N-terminal fragment (fragment 1) of the prothrombin, prior to its activation by factor Xa.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
The cleavage after Arg-198, observed in vitro, does not occur in plasma.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
 

Keywords

Biological process 
Acute phase  definition   [KW-0011]
Blood coagulation  definition   [KW-0094]
Hemostasis  definition   [KW-0356]
Molecular function 
Hydrolase  definition   [KW-0378]
Protease  definition   [KW-0645]
Serine protease  definition   [KW-0720]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Enzyme and pathway databases
SABIO-RK: P00734
Other
GeneWiki: Thrombin
GenomeRNAi: 2147
PRO: PR:P00734
Chemistry
GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY: 2362