C3 - Complement C3 - human protein (Function)
 
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C3 »  Complement C3
 
Protein also known as:  C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 1. Cleaved into:  Acylation stimulating protein; C3-beta-c; C3a anaphylatoxin; Complement C3 alpha chain; Complement C3 beta chain; Complement C3b alpha' chain; Complement C3c alpha' chain fragment 1; Complement C3c alpha' chain fragment 2; Complement C3d fragment; Complement C3dg fragment; Complement C3f fragment; Complement C3g fragment.
Gene name:  C3
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
C3 plays a central role in the activation of the complement system. Its processing by C3 convertase is the central reaction in both classical and alternative complement pathways. After activation C3b can bind covalently, via its reactive thioester, to cell surface carbohydrates or immune aggregates.  
1
  • UniProtKB
Derived from proteolytic degradation of complement C3, C3a anaphylatoxin is a mediator of local inflammatory process. In chronic inflammation, acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils (By similarity). It induces the contraction of smooth muscle, increases vascular permeability and causes histamine release from mast cells and basophilic leukocytes.  
1
  • UniProtKB
C3-beta-c: Acts as a chemoattractant for neutrophils in chronic inflammation.  
1
  • UniProtKB
Acylation stimulating protein: adipogenic hormone that stimulates triglyceride (TG) synthesis and glucose transport in adipocytes, regulating fat storage and playing a role in postprandial TG clearance. Appears to stimulate TG synthesis via activation of the PLC, MAPK and AKT signaling pathways. Ligand for C5AR2. Promotes the phosphorylation, ARRB2-mediated internalization and recycling of C5AR2 (PubMed8376604, PubMed2909530, PubMed9059512, PubMed10432298, PubMed15833747, PubMed16333141, PubMed19615750).  
8
  • UniProtKB
GO molecular function 
C5L2 anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor bindingdefinition[GO:0031715]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Cofactor bindingdefinition[GO:0048037] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Endopeptidase inhibitor activitydefinition[GO:0004866] silver  
1
  • InterPro 2 GO
Lipid bindingdefinition[GO:0008289] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Protein bindingdefinition[GO:0005515]  
5
  • IntAct
  • UniProtKB
  • MTBbase
Receptor bindingdefinition[GO:0005102]  
1
  • PINC
GO biological process 
Blood coagulationdefinition[GO:0007596] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Complement activationdefinition[GO:0006956]  
1
  • BHF-UCL
Complement activation, classical pathwaydefinition[GO:0006958]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Fatty acid metabolic processdefinition[GO:0006631]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0007186]  
1
  • PINC
Immune responsedefinition[GO:0006955]  
1
  • PINC
Inflammatory responsedefinition[GO:0006954]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Negative regulation of endopeptidase activitydefinition[GO:0010951]  
1
  • InterPro 2 GO
Positive regulation of activation of membrane attack complexdefinition[GO:0001970] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of angiogenesisdefinition[GO:0045766] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of apoptotic cell clearancedefinition[GO:2000427]  
1
  • BHF-UCL
Positive regulation of developmental growthdefinition[GO:0048639] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascadedefinition[GO:0070374] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0045745]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Positive regulation of glucose transportdefinition[GO:0010828]  
2
  • UniProtKB
Positive regulation of lipid storagedefinition[GO:0010884]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Positive regulation of protein phosphorylationdefinition[GO:0001934]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Positive regulation of type IIa hypersensitivitydefinition[GO:0001798] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor productiondefinition[GO:0010575]  
1
  • BHF-UCL
Regulation of triglyceride biosynthetic processdefinition[GO:0010866]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to estradioldefinition[GO:0032355] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Response to glucocorticoiddefinition[GO:0051384] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Response to magnesium iondefinition[GO:0032026] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Response to progesteronedefinition[GO:0032570] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Signal transductiondefinition[GO:0007165]  
1
  • PINC
Tolerance inductiondefinition[GO:0002507] silver  
1
  • Ortholog Compara
Enzymatic activity 
 
More information is available from:
Pathways 
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)  hsa05142+718  
Complement and coagulation cascades  hsa04610+718  
Herpes simplex infection  hsa05168+718  
Legionellosis  hsa05134+718  
Leishmaniasis  hsa05140+718  
Pertussis  hsa05133+718  
Phagosome  hsa04145+718  
Staphylococcus aureus infection  hsa05150+718  
Systemic lupus erythematosus  hsa05322+718  
Tuberculosis  hsa05152+718  
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Activation of C3 and C5  R-HSA-174577  
Alternative complement activation  R-HSA-173736  
G alpha (i) signalling events  R-HSA-418594  
Immunoregulatory interactions between a Lymphoid and a non-Lymphoid cell  R-HSA-198933  
Peptide ligand-binding receptors  R-HSA-375276  
Regulation of Complement cascade  R-HSA-977606  
Caution 
According to PubMed:21527715, the interaction surface between C3 and CR2 reported in PubMed:11387479 is artifactual and can be ascribed to the presence of zinc acetate in the buffer.  
1
  • UniProtKB
 

Keywords

Biological process 
Complement alternate pathway  definition   [KW-0179]
Complement pathway  definition   [KW-0180]
Fatty acid metabolism  definition   [KW-0276]
Immunity  definition   [KW-0391]
Inflammatory response  definition   [KW-0395]
Innate immunity  definition   [KW-0399]
Lipid metabolism  definition   [KW-0443]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

GeneWiki: Complement_component_3
GenomeRNAi: 718
PRO: PR:P01024