HLA-DRB1 - HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-3 chain - human protein (Function)
 
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HLA-DRB1 »  HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-3 chain
 
Protein also known as:  MHC class II antigen DRB1*3.
Gene name:  HLA-DRB1
Family name: MHC class II
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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2 594 1
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Function

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Overview 
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides; autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. In addition to APCs; other cells of the gastrointestinal tract; such as epithelial cells; express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APCs; which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen; three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs; CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases; including CTSS and CTSL; leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. In B-cells; the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules; increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO biological process 
Humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulindefinition[GO:0002455]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Immunoglobulin production involved in immunoglobulin mediated immune responsedefinition[GO:0002381]  
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  • IDAUniProtKB
Pathways 
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathway:
Immune System  REACT_6900  
 

Keywords

Biological process 
Immunity  definition   [KW-0391]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

GenomeRNAi: 3123