PRKCG - Protein kinase C gamma type - human protein (Function)
 
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PRKCG »  Protein kinase C gamma type   [ EC 2.7.11.13 ]  (PKC-gamma)
 
Gene name:  PRKCG
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that plays diverse roles in neuronal cells and eye tissues, such as regulation of the neuronal receptors GRIA4/GLUR4 and GRIN1/NMDAR1, modulation of receptors and neuronal functions related to sensitivity to opiates, pain and alcohol, mediation of synaptic function and cell survival after ischemia, and inhibition of gap junction activity after oxidative stress. Binds and phosphorylates GRIA4/GLUR4 glutamate receptor and regulates its function by increasing plasma membrane-associated GRIA4 expression. In primary cerebellar neurons treated with the agonist 3,5-dihyidroxyphenylglycine, functions downstream of the metabotropic glutamate receptor GRM5/MGLUR5 and phosphorylates GRIN1/NMDAR1 receptor which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. May be involved in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but may be not necessary for the process of synaptic plasticity. May be involved in desensitization of mu-type opioid receptor-mediated G-protein activation in the spinal cord, and may be critical for the development and/or maintenance of morphine-induced reinforcing effects in the limbic forebrain. May modulate the functionality of mu-type-opioid receptors by participating in a signaling pathway which leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of opioid receptors. May also contributes to chronic morphine-induced changes in nociceptive processing. Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms and contributes to the maintenance of the allodynia pain produced by peripheral inflammation. Plays an important role in initial sensitivity and tolerance to ethanol, by mediating the behavioral effects of ethanol as well as the effects of this drug on the GABA(A) receptors. During and after cerebral ischemia modulate neurotransmission and cell survival in synaptic membranes, and is involved in insulin-induced inhibition of necrosis, an important mechanism for minimizing ischemic injury. Required for the elimination of multiple climbing fibers during innervation of Purkinje cells in developing cerebellum. Is activated in lens epithelial cells upon hydrogen peroxide treatment, and phosphorylates connexin-43 (GJA1/CX43), resulting in disassembly of GJA1 gap junction plaques and inhibition of gap junction activity which could provide a protective effect against oxidative stress (By similarity). Phosphorylates p53/TP53 and promotes p53/TP53-dependent apoptosis in response to DNA damage.  
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  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
ATP bindingdefinition[GO:0005524]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Calcium-dependent protein kinase C activitydefinition[GO:0004698] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Protein kinase activitydefinition[GO:0004672]  
1
  • IDAHGNC
Protein kinase C activitydefinition[GO:0004697]  
1
  • TASPINC
Protein serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activitydefinition[GO:0004712]  
1
  • IDAMGI
Zinc ion bindingdefinition[GO:0008270] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
GO biological process 
Cell deathdefinition[GO:0008219]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Chemosensory behaviordefinition[GO:0007635] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Innervationdefinition[GO:0060384] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Intracellular signal transductiondefinition[GO:0035556] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
Learning or memorydefinition[GO:0007611] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Negative regulation of neuron apoptotic processdefinition[GO:0043524]  
  • ISSOrtholog Curator
Negative regulation of protein catabolic processdefinition[GO:0042177]  
1
  • IDAHGNC
Negative regulation of protein ubiquitinationdefinition[GO:0031397]  
1
  • IDAHGNC
Phosphorylationdefinition[GO:0016310]  
1
  • IDAHGNC
Positive regulation of mismatch repairdefinition[GO:0032425]  
1
  • IDAHGNC
Protein autophosphorylationdefinition[GO:0046777] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Protein phosphorylationdefinition[GO:0006468]  
1
  • TASPINC
Response to morphinedefinition[GO:0043278]  
  • ISSOrtholog Curator
Response to paindefinition[GO:0048265]  
  • ISSOrtholog Curator
Enzymatic activity 
This protein acts as an enzyme. It is known to catalyze the following reaction
EC 2.7.11.13: ATP + a protein ADP + a phosphoprotein.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
It requires the following cofactor
Binds 3 calcium ions per subunit. The ions are bound to the C2 domain.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
It is regulated in the following manner
Classical (or conventional) PKCs (PRKCA, PRKCB and PRKCG) are activated by calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Three specific sites; Thr-514 (activation loop of the kinase domain), Thr-655 (turn motif) and Thr-674 (hydrophobic region), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
 
More information is available from:
Pathways 
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
African trypanosomiasis  hsa05143+5582  
Amoebiasis  hsa05146+5582  
Calcium signaling pathway  hsa04020+5582  
Cholinergic synapse  hsa04725+5582  
Dopaminergic synapse  hsa04728+5582  
Endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption  hsa04961+5582  
ErbB signaling pathway  hsa04012+5582  
Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis  hsa04666+5582  
Focal adhesion  hsa04510+5582  
GABAergic synapse  hsa04727+5582  
Gap junction  hsa04540+5582  
Gastric acid secretion  hsa04971+5582  
Glioma  hsa05214+5582  
Glutamatergic synapse  hsa04724+5582  
Leukocyte transendothelial migration  hsa04670+5582  
Long-term depression  hsa04730+5582  
Long-term potentiation  hsa04720+5582  
MAPK signaling pathway  hsa04010+5582  
Melanogenesis  hsa04916+5582  
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity  hsa04650+5582  
Non-small cell lung cancer  hsa05223+5582  
Pancreatic secretion  hsa04972+5582  
Pathways in cancer  hsa05200+5582  
Phosphatidylinositol signaling system  hsa04070+5582  
Salivary secretion  hsa04970+5582  
Tight junction  hsa04530+5582  
Vascular smooth muscle contraction  hsa04270+5582  
VEGF signaling pathway  hsa04370+5582  
Vibrio cholerae infection  hsa05110+5582  
Wnt signaling pathway  hsa04310+5582  
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Calmodulin induced events  REACT_9000  
Disinhibition of SNARE formation  REACT_1178  
G alpha (z) signalling events  REACT_19333  
Response to elevated platelet cytosolic Ca2+  REACT_1280  
Trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors  REACT_18422  
WNT5A-dependent internalization of FZD4  REACT_172599  
 

Keywords

Molecular function 
Kinase  definition   [KW-0418]
Serine/threonine-protein kinase  definition   [KW-0723]
Transferase  definition   [KW-0808]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Other
GeneWiki: PRKCG
GenomeRNAi: 5582
PRO: PR:P05129
Chemistry
GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY: 1484