RELA - Transcription factor p65 - human protein (Function)
 
Home Recent activites arrow-down favorite My favorites arrow-down favorite My labels arrow-down Downloads
Back to ...  
Publication View
Protein
Gene
References

 
RELA »  Transcription factor p65
 
Gene name:  RELA
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
extend overview
1 721 4
GENE REF ISO

Function

 show evidences
Overview 
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. NF-kappa-B heterodimeric p65-p50 and p65-c-Rel complexes are transcriptional activators. The NF-kappa-B p65-p65 complex appears to be involved in invasin-mediated activation of IL-8 expression. The inhibitory effect of I-kappa-B upon NF-kappa-B the cytoplasm is exerted primarily through the interaction with p65. P65 shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex. Associates with chromatin at the NF-kappa-B promoter region via association with DDX1.  
7
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
Activating transcription factor bindingdefinition[GO:0033613]  
1
  • IPIBHF-UCL
Ankyrin repeat bindingdefinition[GO:0071532] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Chromatin bindingdefinition[GO:0003682]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
DNA bindingdefinition[GO:0003677]  
3
  • IDAUniProtKB
  • IDAMGI
Identical protein bindingdefinition[GO:0042802]  
3
  • IPIIntAct
  • IDAUniProtKB
NF-kappaB bindingdefinition[GO:0051059]  
1
  • IPIUniProtKB
Phosphate ion bindingdefinition[GO:0042301]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Protein bindingdefinition[GO:0005515]  
53
  • IPIIntAct
  • IPIUniProtKB
Protein complex bindingdefinition[GO:0032403] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Protein kinase bindingdefinition[GO:0019901]  
2
  • IPIUniProtKB
Protein N-terminus bindingdefinition[GO:0047485]  
1
  • IPIUniProtKB
Repressing transcription factor bindingdefinition[GO:0070491]  
1
  • IPIBHF-UCL
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA bindingdefinition[GO:0000978]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of transcriptiondefinition[GO:0001078]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcriptiondefinition[GO:0001077]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA bindingdefinition[GO:0000980]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activitydefinition[GO:0003705]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity involved in positive regulation of transcriptiondefinition[GO:0001205]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
Sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activitydefinition[GO:0003700]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Transcription factor bindingdefinition[GO:0008134]  
1
  • IPIUniProtKB
Transcription regulatory region DNA bindingdefinition[GO:0044212]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Ubiquitin protein ligase bindingdefinition[GO:0031625]  
1
  • IPIUniProtKB
GO biological process 
Acetaldehyde metabolic processdefinition[GO:0006117] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Agingdefinition[GO:0007568] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Cellular defense responsedefinition[GO:0006968]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Cellular response to hydrogen peroxidedefinition[GO:0070301]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Cellular response to interleukin-1definition[GO:0071347]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Cellular response to interleukin-6definition[GO:0071354]  
1
  • IMPBHF-UCL
Cellular response to lipopolysaccharidedefinition[GO:0071222] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Cellular response to nicotinedefinition[GO:0071316]  
1
  • IMPBHF-UCL
Cellular response to peptide hormone stimulusdefinition[GO:0071375]  
1
  • IMPBHF-UCL
Cellular response to tumor necrosis factordefinition[GO:0071356]  
2
  • IDAUniProtKB
Cytokine-mediated signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0019221]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Defense response to virusdefinition[GO:0051607]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Hair follicle developmentdefinition[GO:0001942] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Inflammatory responsedefinition[GO:0006954]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Liver developmentdefinition[GO:0001889] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Negative regulation of apoptotic processdefinition[GO:0043066]  
2
  • IDAUniProtKB
Negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:2001237]  
1
  • IMPBHF-UCL
Negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0046627] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Negative regulation of protein catabolic processdefinition[GO:0042177] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoterdefinition[GO:0000122]  
1
  • IDANTNU_SB
Negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templateddefinition[GO:0045892]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathwaydefinition[GO:0070431]  
1
  • IDAMGI
Organ morphogenesisdefinition[GO:0009887] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of cell proliferationdefinition[GO:0008284]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiationdefinition[GO:0032332] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signalingdefinition[GO:0043123]  
1
  • IEPUniProtKB
Positive regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic processdefinition[GO:0045084] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of miRNA metabolic processdefinition[GO:2000630]  
1
  • IMPBHF-UCL
Positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activitydefinition[GO:0051092]  
1
  • IDAMGI
Positive regulation of Schwann cell differentiationdefinition[GO:0014040] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoterdefinition[GO:0045944]  
5
  • IDAUniProtKB
  • IMPBHF-UCL
  • IDANTNU_SB
Positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templateddefinition[GO:0045893]  
2
  • IDAUniProtKB
Regulation of inflammatory responsedefinition[GO:0050727]  
  • ISSOrtholog Curator
Response to amino aciddefinition[GO:0043200] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to cAMPdefinition[GO:0051591] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to cobalamindefinition[GO:0033590] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to drugdefinition[GO:0042493] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to insulindefinition[GO:0032868] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to interleukin-1definition[GO:0070555]  
1
  • IGIBHF-UCL
Response to mechanical stimulusdefinition[GO:0009612] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to morphinedefinition[GO:0043278] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to muramyl dipeptidedefinition[GO:0032495] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to organic substancedefinition[GO:0010033]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Response to progesteronedefinition[GO:0032570] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Response to UV-Bdefinition[GO:0010224]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Transcription from RNA polymerase II promoterdefinition[GO:0006366]  
1
  • IDAGOC
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
Viral processdefinition[GO:0016032]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Pathways 
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Acute myeloid leukemia  hsa05221+5970  
Adipocytokine signaling pathway  hsa04920+5970  
Amoebiasis  hsa05146+5970  
Apoptosis  hsa04210+5970  
B cell receptor signaling pathway  hsa04662+5970  
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis)  hsa05142+5970  
Chemokine signaling pathway  hsa04062+5970  
Chronic myeloid leukemia  hsa05220+5970  
Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway  hsa04623+5970  
Epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection  hsa05120+5970  
Hepatitis C  hsa05160+5970  
Herpes simplex infection  hsa05168+5970  
HTLV-I infection  hsa05166+5970  
Influenza A  hsa05164+5970  
Legionellosis  hsa05134+5970  
Leishmaniasis  hsa05140+5970  
MAPK signaling pathway  hsa04010+5970  
Measles  hsa05162+5970  
Neurotrophin signaling pathway  hsa04722+5970  
NOD-like receptor signaling pathway  hsa04621+5970  
Osteoclast differentiation  hsa04380+5970  
Pancreatic cancer  hsa05212+5970  
Pathways in cancer  hsa05200+5970  
Pertussis  hsa05133+5970  
Prostate cancer  hsa05215+5970  
RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway  hsa04622+5970  
Salmonella infection  hsa05132+5970  
Shigellosis  hsa05131+5970  
Small cell lung cancer  hsa05222+5970  
T cell receptor signaling pathway  hsa04660+5970  
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway  hsa04620+5970  
Toxoplasmosis  hsa05145+5970  
Tuberculosis  hsa05152+5970  
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathways:
Activation of NF-kappaB in B cells  REACT_118656  
Downstream TCR signaling  REACT_12555  
FCERI mediated NF-kB activation  REACT_163994  
Interleukin-1 processing  REACT_23950  
NF-kB is activated and signals survival  REACT_13696  
Regulated proteolysis of p75NTR  REACT_13443  
RIP-mediated NFkB activation via ZBP1  REACT_118563  
Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP)  REACT_169168  
TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex  REACT_21281  
TRAF6 mediated NF-kB activation  REACT_24969  
Transcriptional regulation of white adipocyte differentiation  REACT_27161  
 

Keywords

Biological process 
Host-virus interaction  definition   [KW-0945]
Transcription  definition   [KW-0804]
Transcription regulation  definition   [KW-0805]
Molecular function 
Activator  definition   [KW-0010]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Enzyme and pathway databases
SABIO-RK: Q04206
Other
GeneWiki: RELA
GenomeRNAi: 5970
PRO: PR:Q04206