CD163 - Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130 - human protein (Function)
 
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CD163 »  Scavenger receptor cysteine-rich type 1 protein M130
 
Protein also known as:  Hemoglobin scavenger receptor; CD antigen CD163. Cleaved into:  Soluble CD163.
Gene name:  CD163
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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GENE REF ISO

Function

 show evidences
Overview 
After shedding, the soluble form (sCD163) may play an anti-inflammatory role, and may be a valuable diagnostic parameter for monitoring macrophage activation in inflammatory conditions.  
5
  • CuratedUniProtKB
Acute phase-regulated receptor involved in clearance and endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes by macrophages and may thereby protect tissues from free hemoglobin-mediated oxidative damage. May play a role in the uptake and recycling of iron, via endocytosis of hemoglobin/haptoglobin and subsequent breakdown of heme. Binds hemoglobin/haptoglobin complexes in a calcium-dependent and pH-dependent manner. Exhibits a higher affinity for complexes of hemoglobin and multimeric haptoglobin of HP*1F phenotype than for complexes of hemoglobin and dimeric haptoglobin of HP*1S phenotype. Induces a cascade of intracellular signals that involves tyrosine kinase-dependent calcium mobilization, inositol triphosphate production and secretion of IL6 and CSF1.  
5
  • CuratedUniProtKB
Isoform  Iso 3   Exhibits the higher capacity for ligand endocytosis and the more pronounced surface expression when expressed in cells.  
5
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
Protein bindingdefinition[GO:0005515]  
1
  • IPIUniProtKB
Scavenger receptor activitydefinition[GO:0005044]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
GO biological process 
Acute-phase responsedefinition[GO:0006953]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Receptor-mediated endocytosisdefinition[GO:0006898]  
1
  • NASGOC
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
Pathways 
According to Reactome, this protein belongs to the following pathway:
Scavenging of heme from plasma  REACT_160163  
Note 
Intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a rapid rise of sCD163 in plasma of patient as it induces metalloproteinase-mediated shedding from monocytes surface. Long-term LPS infusion finally increases expression of the membrane-bound form on circulating monocytes.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
The soluble form (sCD163) in plasma is a novel parameter in diseases affecting macrophage function and monocyte/macrophage load in the body. The concentration of sCD163 is probably reflecting the number of macrophages of the 'alternative macrophage activation' phenotype with a high CD163 expression playing a major role in dampening the inflammatory response and scavenging components of damaged cells. This has initiated a number of clinical studies for evaluation of sCD163 as a disease marker in inflammatory conditions e.g. Infection, autoimmune disease, transplantation, atherosclerosis and cancer.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
 

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters
KM 0.2 nM for hemoglobin/haptoglobin of HP*1F phenotype
KM 2.0 nM for hemoglobin/haptoglobin of HP*1S phenotype

Keywords

Biological process 
Acute phase  definition   [KW-0011]
Inflammatory response  definition   [KW-0395]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

GeneWiki: CD163
GenomeRNAi: 9332
PRO: PR:Q86VB7