NEIL1 - Endonuclease 8-like 1 - human protein (Function)
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NEIL1 »  Endonuclease 8-like 1   [ EC 3.2.2.-EC ]
Protein also known as:  DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase Neil1.
Gene name:  NEIL1
Family name: FPG
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Acts as DNA glycosylase that recognizes and removes damaged bases. Has a preference for oxidized pyrimidines, such as thymine glycol, formamidopyrimidine (Fapy) and 5-hydroxyuracil. Has marginal activity towards 8-oxoguanine. Has AP (apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase activity and introduces nicks in the DNA strand. Cleaves the DNA backbone by beta-delta elimination to generate a single-strand break at the site of the removed base with both 3'- and 5'-phosphates. Has DNA glycosylase/lyase activity towards mismatched uracil and thymine, in particular in U:C and T:C mismatches. Specifically binds 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), suggesting that it acts as a specific reader of 5hmC.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
Damaged DNA bindingdefinition[GO:0003684] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
DNA N-glycosylase activitydefinition[GO:0019104] silver  
  • IEAOrtholog Compara
DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase activitydefinition[GO:0003906]  
  • IEAEC 2 GO
Hydrolase activity, acting on glycosyl bondsdefinition[GO:0016798]  
  • IDAUniProtKB
Protein C-terminus bindingdefinition[GO:0008022]  
  • IPIUniProtKB
Zinc ion bindingdefinition[GO:0008270] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
GO biological process 
Base-excision repairdefinition[GO:0006284]  
  • IDAUniProtKB
DNA catabolic process, endonucleolyticdefinition[GO:0000737]  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
  • IEAEC 2 GO
Negative regulation of nuclease activitydefinition[GO:0032074]  
  • IDAUniProtKB
Nucleotide-excision repairdefinition[GO:0006289] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
Response to oxidative stressdefinition[GO:0006979]  
  • IDAUniProtKB
Enzymatic activity 
This protein acts as an enzyme. It is known to catalyze the following reactions
EC 3.2.2.-: Removes damaged bases from DNA, leaving an abasic site.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
EC The C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken by a beta-elimination reaction, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
More information is available from:
According to KEGG, this protein belongs to the following pathway:
Base excision repair  hsa03410+79661  


Biological process 
DNA damage  definition   [KW-0227]
DNA repair  definition   [KW-0234]
Molecular function 
Glycosidase  definition   [KW-0326]
Hydrolase  definition   [KW-0378]
Lyase  definition   [KW-0456]
Technical term 
Multifunctional enzyme  definition   [KW-0511]
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]

Further external links

GeneWiki: NEIL1
GenomeRNAi: 79661