GLRX2 - Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial - human protein (Function)
 
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GLRX2 »  Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
 
Gene name:  GLRX2
Family name: Glutaredoxin
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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1 27 2
GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release.  
4
  • CuratedUniProtKB
GO molecular function 
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster bindingdefinition[GO:0051537]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activitydefinition[GO:0008794]  
2
  • TASUniProtKB
Electron carrier activitydefinition[GO:0009055]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activitydefinition[GO:0015038]  
2
  • TASUniProtKB
Metal ion bindingdefinition[GO:0046872]  
  • IEAUniProtKB KW
Protein disulfide isomerase activitydefinition[GO:0003756]  
2
  • TASUniProtKB
Protein disulfide oxidoreductase activitydefinition[GO:0015035] silver  
  • IEAInterPro 2 GO
GO biological process 
Apoptotic processdefinition[GO:0006915]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Cell differentiationdefinition[GO:0030154]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Cell redox homeostasisdefinition[GO:0045454]  
1
  • TASUniProtKB
DNA protectiondefinition[GO:0042262]  
2
  • NASUniProtKB
Glutathione metabolic processdefinition[GO:0006749]  
1
  • TASUniProtKB
Protein foldingdefinition[GO:0006457]  
2
  • TASGOC
Regulation of signal transductiondefinition[GO:0009966]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Regulation of transcription, DNA-templateddefinition[GO:0006355]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Response to hydrogen peroxidedefinition[GO:0042542]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Response to organic substancedefinition[GO:0010033]  
1
  • IDAUniProtKB
Response to redox statedefinition[GO:0051775]  
1
  • TASUniProtKB
Response to temperature stimulusdefinition[GO:0009266]  
1
  • NASUniProtKB
Enzymatic activity 
It is regulated in the following manner
The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster, subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues.  
1
  • CuratedUniProtKB
Note 
The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin and phenylarsine oxide.  
  • CuratedUniProtKB
 

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters
KM 0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease A
KM 0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol
KM 5.9 mM for GSH
KM 4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA

Keywords

Biological process 
Electron transport  definition   [KW-0249]
Transport  definition   [KW-0813]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Enzyme and pathway databases
SABIO-RK: Q9NS18
Other
GeneWiki: GLRX2
GenomeRNAi: 51022
PRO: PR:Q9NS18