GLRX2 - Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial - human protein (Function)
 
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GLRX2 »  Glutaredoxin-2, mitochondrial
 
Gene name:  GLRX2
Family name: Glutaredoxin
Entry whose protein(s) existence is based on evidence at protein level
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1 29 2
GENE REF ISO

Function

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Overview 
Glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase that facilitates the maintenance of mitochondrial redox homeostasis upon induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Involved in response to hydrogen peroxide and regulation of apoptosis caused by oxidative stress. Acts as a very efficient catalyst of monothiol reactions because of its high affinity for protein glutathione-mixed disulfides. Can receive electrons not only from glutathione (GSH), but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions. Efficiently catalyzes both glutathionylation and deglutathionylation of mitochondrial complex I, which in turn regulates the superoxide production by the complex. Overexpression decreases the susceptibility to apoptosis and prevents loss of cardiolipin and cytochrome c release.  
5
  • UniProtKB
GO molecular function 
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster bindingdefinition[GO:0051537]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Arsenate reductase (glutaredoxin) activitydefinition[GO:0008794]  
2
  • UniProtKB
Electron carrier activitydefinition[GO:0009055]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Glutathione disulfide oxidoreductase activitydefinition[GO:0015038]  
2
  • UniProtKB
Metal ion bindingdefinition[GO:0046872]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Protein disulfide isomerase activitydefinition[GO:0003756]  
2
  • UniProtKB
Protein disulfide oxidoreductase activitydefinition[GO:0015035] silver  
1
  • InterPro 2 GO
GO biological process 
Apoptotic processdefinition[GO:0006915]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Cell differentiationdefinition[GO:0030154]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Cell redox homeostasisdefinition[GO:0045454]  
1
  • UniProtKB
DNA protectiondefinition[GO:0042262]  
2
  • UniProtKB
Glutathione metabolic processdefinition[GO:0006749]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Oxidation-reduction processdefinition[GO:0055114]  
1
  • UniProtKB KW
Protein foldingdefinition[GO:0006457]  
2
  • GOC
Regulation of signal transductiondefinition[GO:0009966]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Regulation of transcription, DNA-templateddefinition[GO:0006355]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to hydrogen peroxidedefinition[GO:0042542]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to organic substancedefinition[GO:0010033]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to redox statedefinition[GO:0051775]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Response to temperature stimulusdefinition[GO:0009266]  
1
  • UniProtKB
Enzymatic activity 
It is regulated in the following manner
The 2Fe-2S present in the homodimer leads to inactivation of the enzyme. The 2Fe-2S may serve as a redox sensor: the presence of one-electron oxidants or reductants leading to the loss of the 2Fe-2S cluster, subsequent monomerization and activation of the enzyme. Unlike other glutaredoxins, it is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues.  
2
  • UniProtKB
Note 
The absence of GLRX2 dramatically sensitizes cells to cell death induced by doxorubicin/adriamycin and phenylarsine oxide.  
1
  • UniProtKB
 

Biophysicochemical properties

Kinetic parameters
KM 0.77 mM for glutathionylated ribonuclease A
KM 0.11 mM for glutathionylated beta-mercaptoethanol
KM 5.9 mM for GSH
KM 4.3 mM for glutathionylated BSA

Keywords

Biological process 
Electron transport  definition   [KW-0249]
Transport  definition   [KW-0813]
Technical term 
Reference proteome  definition   [KW-1185]
 

Further external links

Enzyme and pathway databases
SABIO-RK: Q9NS18
Other
GeneWiki: GLRX2
GenomeRNAi: 51022
PRO: PR:Q9NS18